The European Union promociona the cooperation interuniversitaria like a means to improve the quality of the education, in profit of the students and of the institutions of upper education. Already from the year 1987 and developing of the Treaty constitutivo of the European Community and, in particular, of his articles 126 and 127, the European Union (before CEE) establishes to such end the program of mobility ERASMUS that facilitates the exchange of students between institutions of upper education of the distinct countries of the field of the own Or.And. The experience accumulated since has allowed the mobility of some two hundred one thousand university, having developed technical procedures that simplify and systematise the activity of exchange, doing it more agile in his distinct phases. The systematisation of the technical mechanisms of exchange has diminished the logical uncertainty that accompanies to the change of institution, of school calendar, programs, academic recognitions, etc., propiciando the one who these are increasingly attractive and numerous.
Splitting of the premise that the mobility is a desirable factor in the university training, found us in front of the paradoxical situation that the exchanges of students are at present easier to realise (and more numerous) between Spanish and foreign institutions that inside Spain.
In front of said circumstance, does recommended the establishment of a mechanism that allow that the students can realise a part of his studies in another Spanish university, with guarantees of academic recognition and of aprovechamiento, as well as of adecuación to the profile curricular of the student.
After ten years of activity in Europe, ERASMUS has gone evolving in his models of exchanges, perfecting the mechanisms of execution and development. In his starts the mobility ERASMUS developed in the frame of networks descentralizadas (PICs or Programs Interuniversitarios of Cooperation), in which groups of universities led by a responsible Coordinator of the network or PIC, organised an own system of exchanges based in the concept of equivalence (by courses /time) or by asignaturas. This system adolecía of the defect to depend excessively of the people (Coordinator of each exchange in each university), of a scarce institutional implication of the own university, of the fault of uniformity and of continuity, of the absence of some trámites and calendars standardised, as well as in a lot of cases of an effective recococimiento academic in the university of origin of the
Studies cursados and surpassed in the university of destination.
Later and from the course 97-98, when establishing the mobility ERASMUS in the frame of the Program of action comunitaria in matter of education SOCRATES, produces a fundamental change in the systematisation of the mobility estudiantil European. They disappear the ancient PICs, and is the university the one who takes a protagonismo institutional and effective in the execution of the exchanges, thanks to the signature and execution of the Institutional Agreement University - European Union, that engloba all the university bilateral agreements in matter of mobility estudiantil, with what attained obviar many of the distinguished defects previously.
Al same time that developed the exchanges estudiantiles, first with the PICs and afterwards in the frame of SOCRATES - ERASMUS, went developing and perfecting a tool that served of common guideline for the academic recognitions inside the previous programs of mobility: treat of the System of Transfer of European Credits or ECTS (European Credit Transfer System). Initially experimental and centralised, ECTS coordinated
From Brussels and perfected along six years in the field of five different specialities. The system attained a remarkable success, no exento of difficulties, as they showed two successive audits, by what the authorities comunitarias recommended his generalisation between the universities participants in the program SOCRATES, advocating besides in the statement of Bolonia the extension of the system.
Of the before referred experiences deduce that it is possible to systematise and simplify the exchanges, having already of a tool of academic recognitions that, convenientemente adapted, could serve for the establishment of a System of Exchange between University Centres of Spain (SICUE). The base of reference would constitute it the own ECTS, whose procedures are published and are relatively easy to adopt. At present already we are using the system ECTS like method simpler in the mobility estudiantil and avoiding the at all easy system of the convalidación.
To) General Principles
Will take into account, anyway, the formative value of the exchange, when making possible that the student experience distinct educational systems, included the diet of practices, as well as the distinct social appearances and cultural of other Autonomies.
The exchange of students will base in the confidence between the institutions, the informative transparency, the reciprocity and the flexibility.
The adhesion by a University to this system will mean the commitment of acceptance of some obligations that affect to distinct appearances of his operation (in relation with the exchange), doing accessible to the other Universities information on course, calendars, etc. Asímismo, will engage to use some methods of qualification normalised and to do them arrive to the University of origin in time and form adapted.
To ensure that the student knows well his educational system this exchange will have to realise once have surpassed in the University of origin a minimum of 60 credits, in Diplomaturas and Technical Engineerings and Technical Architecture and of 120 credits in Degrees, Engineerings and Architecture.
B) Bases of Operation
All the Centres participants in the Program of Exchange engage to elaborate an Informative Document that specify plan of studies, contents, credits, calendar, etc.
They will use a group of printed matter normalised in which will include :
a.Agreement of Equivalence
b.Proposal of Exchange
c.Certificate of Previous Studies
d.Notification of qualifications
The mobility of students will base in the Proposal of Exchange. This document will describe the activity to realise in the Centre of Destination that will be recognised automatically by the Centre of Origin.
The acceptance of the Proposal of Exchange of each student, will do after an analysis individualizado by the Centre of Origin and Centre of Destination.
The Proposals of Exchange will realise before the end of the month of March of every year so that it can communicate the acceptance or denial of the application before the end of the month of June.
The Proposal of Exchange will go signed by the student, the Dean/Director and the Coordinator of Exchanges in the Centre of Origin. In case of acceptance by the Centre of Destination, his Dean and Coordinator of Exchanges, will sign also the document, doing him arrive a copy to the Centre of Origin.
The Proposals of Exchange accepted by the three parts involved: students, Centre of Origin and Centre of Destination, will have character of agreement vinculante for the firmantes.
The students participants in the exchange will credit the taxes of matrícula exclusively in the Centre of Origin being to charge of the student, in his case, the taxes of docencia and others, if there were them.
Finalizado The period of stay in the Centre of Destination, this will remit to the Centre of Origin a certificate of the notes obtained by the student, that will have to file jointly with his file. It Will be the record of the student of this course.
They will not be able to be included in the Proposals of Exchange asignaturas described with suspense with anterioridad in the Centre of Origin.
C) Selection of candidates
The selection of the students in each Centre of Origin will be realised by an ad hoc Commission, chaired by the Coordinator of Exchange.
The selection of candidates to take part in the exchanges will do valuing academic appearances: file, course and adecuación of the Proposal of Exchange.
Also will take into account the possibilities of adaptation of the student to the Centre of Destination proposed.
During the length of the Program of Exchange, the students will be students of the Centre of Origin of origin to all the effects, having the academic rights and obligations of the students of the Centre of Destination.
E) Recognition of Studies
So as to simplify the administrative work, the asignatura cursadas in a Centre of Destination will originate an only Record in the Centre of Origin, as the model.